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|Title:||Purification and stabilization of peptide and protein pharmaceutical agents|
|Abstract:||Methods are provided for purifying peptides and proteins by incorporating the peptide or protein into a diketopiperazine or competitive complexing agent to facilitate removal one or more impurities, i.e. undesirable components, from the peptide or protein. In a preferred embodiment, a peptide, such as insulin, containing one or more impurities, e.g., zinc ions, is entrapped in diketopiperazine to form a precipitate of peptide/diketopiperazine/impurity, which is then washed with a solvent for the impurity to be removed, which is a nonsolvent for the diketopiperazine and a nonsolvent for the peptide. Formulations and methods also are provided for the improved transport of active agents across biological membranes, resulting for example in a rapid increase in blood agent concentration. The formulations include microparticles formed of (i) the active agent, which may be charged or neutral, and (ii) a transport enhancer that masks the charge of the agent and/or that forms hydrogen bonds with the target biological membrane in order to facilitate transport. In a preferred embodiment, insulin is administered via the pulmonary delivery of microparticles comprising fumaryl diketopiperazine and insulin in its biologically active form. The charge on the insulin molecule is masked by hydrogen bonding it to the diketopiperazine, thereby enabling the insulin to pass through the target membrane. This method of delivering insulin results in a rapid increase in blood insulin concentration that is comparable to the increase resulting from intravenous delivery.|
|Inventor(s):||Steiner; Solomon S. (Mount Kisco, NY), Woods; Rodney J. (New Hampton, NY), Sulner; Joseph W. (Paramus, NJ)|
|Assignee:||Pharmaceutical Discovery Corporation (Elmsford, NY)|
1. A method for purifying an active agent comprising providing an active agent containing an metal impurity to be removed; complexing the active agent to a diketopiperazine such that
the active agent does not complex or bind to the impurity; and removing essentially all of tile impurity from the complex either because it does not complex with the diketopiperazine or by washing with a non-solvent for the active agent and
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the active agent is a peptide or protein.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the peptide or protein is selected from the group consisting of insulin, salmon calcitonin, parathyroid hormone 1-34, octreotide, leuprolide, and RSV peptide.
4. The method of claim 3 wherein the active agent is insulin.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein the impurity is a multi-valent ion.
6. The method of claim 4 wherein the active agent of step (a) is an insulin complex and the impurity is a zinc ion.
7. The method of claim 6 wherein the complex is hexameric insulin.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the diketopiperazine is fumaryl diketopiperazine.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the active agent is complexed to the diketopiperazine by a process which comprises mating a solution of the diketopiperazine, making a solution or suspension of the active agent, combining the diketopiperazine solution with the solution or suspension of active agent, and precipitating microparticle of the diketopiperazine in which the active agent is dispersed, thereby forming the complex.
10. The method of claim 9 further comprising washing the microparticles with an aqueous solvent for the impurity.
11. A composition for the administration of a peptide to a patient, comprising a peptide complexed to a diketopiperazine such that the peptide does not complex or bind to the impurity, wherein the peptide is substantially free of impurities.
12. The composition of claim 11 wherein the peptide is dimeric or monomeric insulin.
13. The composition of claim 12 substantially free of zinc ions.
14. The composition of claim 11 wherein the peptide is glucagon.
15. The composition of claim 11 wherein the diketopiperazine is fumaryl diketopiperazine.
16. The composition of any of claim 11 wherein the peptide is dispersed within or coated onto microparticles of the diketopiperazine.
17. The composition of claim 16 wherein the microparticles are provided in the form of a dry powder.
18. The composition of claim 16 wherein the microparticles are provided as an aqueous suspension in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
19. The composition of claim 11 which is in a form suitable for pulmonary administration.
20. The composition of claim 11 made by a method comprising providing an active agent containing an impurity to be removed; complexing the active agent to a diketopiperazine; and removing essentially all of the impurity from the complex either because it does not complex with the diketopiperazine or by washing with a non-solvent for the active agent and diketopiperazine.
21. A method for administering an active agent to a mucosal membrane of a person in need of the active agent, comprising administering to the mucosal membrane a composition which comprises microparticles formed of (i) the active agent and (ii) an effective amount of a transport enhancer to facilitate transport of the active agent across the mucosal membrane by masking a charge of the agent, if any, by hydrogen bonding the transport enhancer to the mucosal membrane, or a combination thereof, wherein the active agent and the enhancer are complexed such that the active agent does not complex or bind to a metal impurity.
22. The method claim 21 wherein the active agent is a charged molecule.
23. The method of claim 22 wherein the active agent is insulin.
24. The method claim 21 wherein the transport enhancer forms hydrogen bonds with the active agent to mask its charge.
25. The method of claim 21 wherein the transport enhancer is fumaryl diketopiperazine.
26. The method of claim 21 wherein the composition is administered to the lungs via inhalation.
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